Septicemia in the language of physicians means infection of the blood. The disease occurs due to the ingress of pathogens into the bloodstream. The spread of microbes can begin from any source of inflammation - wounds on the skin, infectious lesions of organs or tissues. The youngest children are most vulnerable to septicemia, as the immune system is in their infancy and infection from the organ can easily penetrate the bloodstream.
At a septicemia of the patient disturbs a high temperature, a fever, there is a delirium, the respiratory failure develops, a tachycardia. The disease is characterized by rapid development, so an important role here is played by timely detection and adequate therapy.
Causes of septicemia
The cause of septicemia is pathogenic microbes - in most cases it is bacteria, but fungi, viruses and other conditionally pathogenic microorganisms can also cause disease.
Microbes can enter the body through the mouth, open wounds on the body, various inflammation foci (for example, with genyantritis, otitis, inflammation of the kidneys, etc.). In most cases, the immune system copes with pathogenic microorganisms, but when a large number of bacteria enter the bloodstream (which often occurs in advanced stages of sinusitis, otitis, cystitis, etc.), immunity can not withstand and blood infection begins, with all the ensuing consequences.
Often septicemia is a serious complication of infectious diseases.
Along with bacteria, the products of their vital activity get into the blood - poisonous substances, which, in fact, cause damage to tissues, organs, toxic shock, disruption of the body systems, which ultimately can lead to the death of the patient.
Symptoms of septicemia
As already mentioned, this condition is characterized by rapid development, so the recognition of the first signs of the disease will help start timely treatment and thereby save a person's life. To start the disease, typical symptoms of a common cold are common - weakness, temperature, refusal to eat, chills. Over time, there may be diarrhea or vomiting, characteristic of intestinal infection. Then there is a rapid breathing, tachycardia.
The condition with septicemia rapidly deteriorates, the toxins in the blood damage the blood vessels, which leads to subcutaneous hemorrhages, manifested as a rash on the skin. In the beginning, the rash is similar to small dots, but rather quickly large blue areas are formed on the skin. The disease progresses at a rapid pace and in some cases the rashes change their nature right before our eyes. With severe intoxication delusions appear, loss of consciousness.
Septicopaemia is one of the forms of blood infection, which is characterized by the appearance of abscesses on various organs and tissues of the body. The disease manifests itself moderately and proceeds without pronounced symptoms. The main cause of septicopyemia development are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus.
A number of specialists consider the disease to be the second stage of septicemia. However, the development of septicopyemia largely depends on the state of the immune system and the ability of the body to resist pathogens, so this condition does not always result in the appearance of secondary abscesses.
Bacterial septicemia or bacterial endocarditis is a special form of blood infection, which is characterized by abscesses on the heart valves and an increased response of the body to intoxication. Most often the cause of this form of the disease are enterococci and staphylococci (white, green, golden), less often - proteins, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Bacteria secrete toxins into the bloodstream, in response the immune system forms antibodies, which can cause an increased reaction of the body.
There are several forms of this form of the disease - acute, subacute, chronic. When a disease is usually affected by aortic valves, there is less damage to the mitral valve, and there may also be changes in the septic character simultaneously in the two valves. In addition, there is damage to internal organs and systems - an increase in the spleen, damage to blood vessels, kidneys, joints, etc. Characteristic symptoms are hemorrhages in the lower eyelid, under the skin, the appearance of nodules on the palms, necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue, thickening of the phalanges of the fingers (a symptom of the drum sticks).
The causative agent of diplococcal septicemia is diplococcus. Infection of the blood is accompanied by inflammatory processes in the lungs, joints, intestines. There are several types of diplococci - gonococci, meningococci, pneumococci, extracellular diplococci. This form of the disease develops extremely rarely in humans, usually small and large cattle (lambs, calves), horses, pigs are subject to disease. Mortality due to diplococcal septicemia is up to 70%. Streptococci are the most common pathogens of infectious diseases in humans. Streptococcal septicemia can be caused by bacteria of different groups - streptococci A, B, D, Streptococcus pneumoniae. This form of the disease is often a complication of infectious diseases caused by streptococci - angina, otitis media, pneumonia, meningitis, etc.
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is a rare form of blood infection that occurs in humans. The disease is provoked by viruses that enter the bloodstream. The disease leads to the defeat of all organs and systems, and hemorrhage under the skin or on the mucous membranes. Septicemia, unspecified, is a general concept that includes various diseases of unknown etiology - fungal sepsis, bacteremia staphylococcal, toxic-infectious shock. This diagnosis is made if it is impossible to determine the exact type of microorganisms that caused blood infection. Mortality in this case can reach 90%, in some cases there is a rapid development of the disease, when death may occur in a few hours.
Diagnosis of septicemia
The diagnosis is based on typical signs of infection of the blood, which is confirmed by laboratory tests. To identify the causative agent of septicemia, blood culture is prescribed. At the same time, the analysis should be done several times in a row, since microorganisms have a certain life cycle, and the prescribed treatment can significantly change the number of bacteria in the bloodstream and the composition of the blood.
In addition to blood, inflammation is separated from the focus, which also helps to determine the type of pathogen. When determining the type of microbes, an analysis is made of susceptibility to antibiotics. Also the standard procedure is a general and biochemical analysis of blood, urine. In addition, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, thorax.
Treatment of septicemia
Treatment should only occur in a hospital in the intensive care unit or intensive care unit. Treatment is based on the same principles as infectious disease therapy, however, when choosing drugs, the patient's condition and high risk of death are taken into account. With septicemia, antibiotics are used (with the sensitivity of microorganisms taken into account), drugs for reducing intoxication (hemosorption, UV irradiation of blood, plasmapheresis, etc.), increasing immunity, and, if necessary, prescribe funds that correct the disturbed processes in the body.
The patient needs maximum rest, dietary nutrition (patients in serious condition are administered nutrient solutions intravenously). Very important points in the treatment is purification of the primary focus of the infection, for this antibiotics from different groups are often used, in some cases hormonal therapy is additionally prescribed. In case of severe intoxication, gamma globulin, plasma, glucose solution is intravenously injected into the patient.
When identifying secondary ulcers, urgent surgical treatment is prescribed - opening and purging of abscesses, purging of purulent wounds, excision of affected areas.