The musculoskeletal system is a rather complex system, all parts of which are closely related. Normal operation of bones, joints and muscles plays a particularly important role in maintaining the working capacity of our body. Accordingly, any violations in the activity of the musculoskeletal system quickly become apparent, worsen the state of health and interfere with normal activity. To fairly dangerous diseases of the musculoskeletal system include infections of bones and joints, symptoms and treatment of infections of bones and joints will be considered in more detail.
Infections of bones
Under the infection of the bones of a doctor usually mean osteomyelitis. Such a disease extends to all components of bone tissue, and can be caused by an attack of a wide variety of pathogens. Most often, infection of the bone is provoked by staphylococci.
Infections of the bones - symptoms
The disease can occur in a local or generalized form. With a local form, the patient's body temperature rises to 38.5 ° C, tumescences form on the affected area, patients complain of a bursting pain. The skin on the sick zone noticeably reddens and becomes hot, over time an abscess appears and even the excretion of pus through the skin may begin. Pathological processes lead to severe soreness and limited movements.
With the generalized form of osteomyelitis, the human body temperature can rise to 39-40C. The patient is disturbed by a strong constant pain of the affected areas, the general intoxication is actively growing. Infectious damage leads to the appearance of sticky sweat, chills and hoarse dyspnea. The patient develops neurological symptoms, represented by convulsions, delirium, loss of consciousness. The skin becomes pale, the kidneys are disturbed.
Treatment of osteomyelitis is aimed at surgical removal of the purulent focus and the sanitation and drainage of the affected area. To preserve the bone, the method of mechanical osteoperforation is used. In this case, special preparations are introduced into the bone, which create a protective barrier near the source of infection, preventing the spread of pathological processes.
The patient is prescribed antibiotics taking into account the sensitivity of the detected pathogen, they are injected into the bone cavity. The patient should be in the inpatient ward, he is shown bed rest with illness and immobilization of the affected area. Doctors select drugs that increase the overall resistance of the body, if necessary, perform blood purification, correction of electrolyte balance, etc. For symptomatic treatment, antipyretic agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or analgesics are used. Correctors of heart failure are also often used, for example, cardiac glycosides, diuretics and ACE inhibitors. Parallel with antibiotics, probiotics are used to restore the intestinal microflora.
An important role is played by carrying out detoxification therapy with the help of a number of solutions: colloids (saline solution) and detoxification products (Neocom pensan, Hemodeza, etc.). In especially serious cases resort to plasmapheresis, hemosorption, ultraviolet or laser radiation of bone.
Infections of the joints
Infectious lesions of joints can be both viral and bacterial. It can be caused by rubella, viral hepatitis, HIV, measles, smallpox, adenovirus, enterovirus, herpes virus, etc. Among the bacterial pathogens streptococci are the most common, the intestinal bacteria, salmonella, brucella, etc., are the most common cause of inflammation. In some cases, the lesion is provoked Fungi.
Infections of the joints - symptoms
In most cases, infection of the joints develops suddenly. But sometimes the manifestations of such a violation increase gradually - within a few weeks.
The affected joint swells and causes severe pain when trying to move. The skin above it becomes red and hot. Possible increased body temperature and the occurrence of chills. Sometimes there is a change in the contours of the joint, an increasing swelling. In addition, with joint infections, symptoms of the underlying disease also appear.
Infections of joints and infection of bones - treatment
Diagnosed infection of the joints is usually treated in the inpatient department, where the patient must be under doctoral supervision. He shows the daily analysis of synovial fluid, which allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy.
Medicinal treatment is selected depending on the type of pathogen that provoked the disease. Drugs of choice are antibacterial drugs, antiviral drugs and antimycotics. Correction of painful sensations is carried out using anesthetizing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
In a number of cases, therapy for infectious involvement of the joints requires an operative intervention. Surgical treatment is carried out in the event that conservative measures do not give a positive effect.
If the joints have suffered especially badly, the doctor may advise them to carry out their reconstruction - replacement with a prosthesis. But such an operation is possible only after a complete cure for the infection.