Activities aimed at the prevention of infectious diseases are called anti-epidemic. Anti-epidemic measures - a set of recommendations that ensure the prevention of infectious diseases among certain population groups, reduce morbidity and eliminate certain infections. Many methods of preventing infectious diseases have been described. Of these, there are four main ones:
- Restriction of contacts;
- Chemoprophylaxis of infections: use of drugs to prevent infection and reproduction of the pathogen;
- Increasing the resistance of a person to an infectious disease.
Limitation of contacts
Restriction of contact is reduced to isolation of sick and infected persons. This is realistic in the conditions of the home, the family, where mainly regime-restrictive measures are held (see section "Isolation"). In some cases, it is necessary to monitor contact persons (observation) and even the introduction of quarantine (see section "Quarantine"). In some patients, hospitalization may be necessary.
Everyone should remember that when the first signs of an infectious disease appear, seek medical help immediately. Hiding the infectious disease harms, sometimes irreparable, not only to the sick, but to others. An outbreak of an infectious disease can disable relatives and a whole team at work.
The isolated infectious patient ceases to be the source of infection in the team.
Detection of bacterial carriers among others is carried out by a special service. Evasion from medical examination should be considered as a gross violation of measures to combat infectious diseases.
As for personal prophylaxis, the most reliable way to prevent an infectious disease is timely immunization. It is necessary to increase the specific resistance of the organism to various pathogens, that is, to act on immunity. Impact on immunity - immunization, which can be active and passive.
Immunity to infectious diseases is developed during the period of natural recovery of the infectious patient or with the artificial introduction of a vaccine to a healthy person. The goal of active immunization is to cause a specific immune response to a particular infectious agent-the vaccine injected.
Vaccines are produced from killed or weakened microorganisms that cause mild forms of the disease. With a decrease in immunity, the vaccine can be administered repeatedly. Subsequent exposure to the same agent results in a rapid increase in resistance to the formation of the necessary immune cells.
With some diseases, the creation of vaccines has not yet been implemented (salmonellosis, infectious rhinitis, AIDS, etc.).
Passive immunization is the introduction of ready-made antibodies (immunoglobulin proteins that are formed in response to the introduction of microorganisms or part of them-antigen) obtained from a human or animal after active immunization. Immunity after passive immunization is short.
Chemoprophylaxis of infections
In order to prevent certain diseases, prophylactic use of antibiotics or chemopreparations is carried out. An example is the prevention of reinfection with angina, when patients after the course of penicillin enter bicillin-5, which prevents complications of rheumatism. The use of mefloquine is advisable when leaving for climatic zones where malaria is common. Effective chemoprevention of influenza is the use of remantadine.
Antibiotics are ineffective in preventive use to prevent bacterial complications in influenza, other acute respiratory diseases, viral diseases with skin rashes (measles, rubella, chicken pox, etc.).
Increased body resistance
Stability of the organism to various infections increases strict adherence to personal hygiene rules, rational and nutritious nutrition, vitaminization, application according to adaptogens, dosage physical loads and constant hardening of the body.