Dermatology is a clinical section of medicine that studies the structure and function of the skin, its appendages (hair, nails), mucous membranes, which deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of skin diseases.
Skin is the outer covering of the human body, protecting the body from external stimuli and taking part in heat regulation, metabolism and some other processes.
Skin diseases are diseases that affect the skin, its appendages and mucous membranes. Diseases of the skin are very diverse in etiology and symptoms, they can cause bacteria and viruses, fungi and parasites. Therefore, the manifestations and methods of treating skin diseases are very different. However, the treatment of almost all skin diseases requires an integrated approach, a combination of local drugs and systemic drugs.
Common skin diseases
Eczema is a chronic relapsing skin disease, which is based on neuro-allergic mechanisms, manifested by inflammation of the superficial layers of the skin.
Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing skin disease, manifested by the precipitation of copiously scaly papules.
Pustular skin diseases (pyoderma) is an extensive group of dermatoses caused by pyogenic bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci and some other pathogens). The main varieties of pustular skin diseases are staphylodermia (ostiofolliculitis, sycosis, folliculitis, carbuncle, furuncle-furunculosis, hydradenitis) and streptodermia (bullous impetigo, peri-ante-mortem impetigo, streptococcal intertrigo, papulo-erosive streptoderma). Various forms of impetigo, panaritium can be caused by both staphylococci and streptococci.
Fungal skin diseases (fungal infections) are diseases caused by pathogenic fungi. Depending on the depth of the epidermis, keratomycosis is excreted (only the horny layer of the epidermis is affected), dermatophytosis (all layers of the skin and its appendages are affected), deep mycoses (affecting the inner layers of the skin, skin changes are secondary), candidiasis (skin, mucous membranes and internal organs are affected ). The group of fungal diseases of the skin includes candidiasis, trichophytosis, microsporia, epidermophytia and other pathologies.
Tuberculosis of the skin is a skin disease that develops due to the penetration of tubercle bacillus into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Tuberculosis of the skin can be manifested in the form of focal (warty, ulcerous tuberculosis, scrofuloderma, vulgar lupus) and disseminated forms (inducible erythema, papulo-necrotic tuberculosis).
Leprosy (leprosy) is a chronic infectious disease caused by mycobacteria of leprosy, accompanied by granulomatous skin lesions, mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, internal organs and peripheral nervous system.
Parasitic skin diseases (dermatozoonoses) - develop as a response to the effects of animal parasites (coelenterates, protozoa, arthropods and mollusks). Common dermatozoonoses are lice (pediculosis), scabies, cutaneous leishmaniasis, demodecosis.
Viral dermatoses are skin diseases caused by viruses. Viral dermatoses include simple and herpes zoster, genital warts, warts, cat scratch disease, nodules of milkmaids, molluscum contagiosum.
Dermatitis is a skin disease that develops due to the irritating effects of certain external factors. Isolate simple and allergic contact dermatitis.
Toxidermy - skin diseases that develop due to the introduction of chemicals into the body.
Bubble dermatosis is a group of skin diseases in which the primary element of a rash is a bladder. The group of bladder dermatoses include true pemphigus, herpetiform dermatitis, vesicating pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid Levera and a number of other diseases.
Photodermatosis - a heterogeneous group of skin diseases arising under the action of solar irradiation in the clinical picture. The most common groups of photodermatoses are:
- Changes in normal skin due to excessive insolation (sunburn, solar elastosis, acute actinic dermatitis);
- Associated with a deficiency of natural skin protecting substances (albinism, pigment xeroderma);
- Manifested or enhanced after insolation (dermatomyositis, lupus erythematosus, chloasma).
Also, solar irradiation can provoke the appearance and growth of nevi, their malignant degeneration.
Neurodermatosis is a group of diseases accompanied by permanent itching and skin manifestations in the form of urticaria-papular elements of the rash and their lichenization (sharp skin thickening, strengthening of the skin pattern).
Professional skin diseases (professional dermatoses) are skin diseases that cause certain occupational hazards, while other factors not related to working conditions (detergents, medications, household irritants) are excluded.
In addition, the group of skin diseases include diseases of hair, sebaceous and sweat glands. Of these, there are often:
- Alopecia - hair loss on the scalp, on the face, on the trunk or limbs;
- Hypertrichosis - excessive hair growth that does not correspond to age and sex;
- Devergie's disease (red pityriasis);
- Seborrhea (seborrheic dermatitis) - a violation of the function of the sebaceous glands, manifested by increased release of sebum;
- Acne (acne) - a purulent-inflammatory lesion of the sebaceous glands on the background of seborrhea.